No voltage is required. It acts like a simple switch with two wires, stepping on the mat completes the circuit by contacting the two wires.
Yes, they have about 5 feet of wire pre-installed. If you need to lengthen the wire you can use 18 to 22 gauge wire to do so.
Neither, polarity does not matter.
Possibly, but it can take up to 40 pounds of pressure to trigger the mat.
No. If the pressure mat is placed on a soft surface (like a sofa cushion) sitting on it will bend it and permanently damage it. The pressure mat should be placed on a flat, sold, and clean surface.
Yes, connect to "TRY ME" on the circuit board or cut the existing mat off about half way down the cable and wire our mat into the left over wire that has the special connector on it.